Popular Abaca Technologies
- How to Grow Abaca
- Abaca Nursery Establishment: A Field Manual
- Proceed to Popular Root Crop Technologies
The climatic condition in Region VIII which covers Leyte and Samar is best suited for abaca production. Recently, Region VIII is the highest abaca producing area of the country since some of the abaca plantation in Bicol and Mindanao are infested by pests and diseases.
Inorder that Region VIII will not be affected by the disease which seriously affect the production in Bicol and Mindanao and to continually enhance or increase the quality and yield of fiber, it is necessary to follow the proper way of growing abaca as suggested in this guide.
- plant abaca in nearly plain and sloppy areas
- choose the area which are not waterlogged during rainy season or located in cool and shady area favorable for newly planted abaca during the dry season.
- Corm - oftentimes used as planting materials since it is less bulky and will easily germinate. Can be harvested 18 months after planting.
- Sucker - usually used as replant for deceased seedpieces. Can be harvested 12 months after planting.
- Abaca usually planted at the start of the rainy season
- Planting can be done anytime if there will be no distinct wet and dry season
- For newly opened areas, cut the unwanted trees after the rainy season, but leave some trees that serve as shade for the new plants.
- Plow and harrow the area to reduce weed population.
- For cultivated areas, underbrush the existing weeds. Plow and harrow the area to reduce weed population.
- In forested area, cut unwanted trees but leave some that serves as shade for new plants.
- Construct a contour line perpendicular to the slope using an "A frame".
- Use wood or bamboo sticks along the contour line to prevent soil erosion and conserved the inherent fertility of the soil.
- Leguminous tree species can also be used like madre de cacao or ipil-ipil along the contour. If it will grow taller than the abaca plant, pruned the trees and let debris decompose to add organic matter to the soil.
- Plow the spaces along the contour to condition the soil and destroy growth of weeds.
- Plant abaca at a distance of not less than two meters.
- Follow the "square method" in short-distanced planting (2m x 2m) for cultivar planted that are not droopy. If not, plant different intercrops under abaca.
- Use the "square method" in long-distanced planting (2.5m x 2.5m or 3m x 3m) specially if you wish to intercrop under abaca or if the cultivar planted have droopy leaves.
- After the desired planting distance has been established, marked each hill with a bamboo stick.
- Bore a hole in every hill prior to planting.
- Separate top soil from subsurface soil.
- The size of hole will depend on the size of prepared planting material.
- Put topsoil at the bottom of the prepared hole.
- Place sucker or corm of abaca at the hole. Compress remaining soil around the planted material.
- Make a mound of soil around the plant to minimize impounding of water from precipitation or irrigation.
- Try to visit the newly planted abaca two or three weeks after planting to ensure germination of the seedpieces. Replant the missing hills and those suckers that has no new leaves developed.
|Type of Fertilizer||Amount of Fertilizer Needed (sacks)||Time of Fertilization (MAP1)|
- Leave few trees in the area planted to abaca.
- In deforested areas, plant ipil-ipil, madre de cacao or any other trees that can provide enough shade to the germinating abaca seedpieces.
- Trees can serve as windbreaks to abaca plants against the devastation of typhoons or storms.
- Trees can add fertility to the soil and hold excess moisture.
- Control weeds around the abaca plants three months after planting. Make this a practice from establishment stage until abaca plants can be harvested.
- Underbrush properly the weeds in the field which could serve as host among disease causing insect and pest vectors.
- Remove some dried leaves and "bacbac" from abaca plant every three months.
Abaca is a well known crop in the Philippines especially in Region 8 for its fiber's good quality and strength. To step-up the industry and to maintain and conserve this crop which is indigenous in the Philippines, farmers are being motivated and encouraged by the different government and non-government agencies to plant abaca. Hence, there exists a growing demand for abaca planting materials. In fact, the National Abaca Research Center (NARC), could no longer cope with the requests for planting materials from farmers who wish to rehabilitate or establish an abaca plantation. It is then a challenge to our abaca cultivators, extension and development workers, financing institutions and local government units to solve the rising demand of planting materials.
- located in flat or rolling areas but not in steep places
- accessible and not too far from the road
- well-drained and does not get flooded during heavy rains. This is to avoid rotting of the seedpieces and/or planting materials
- near a river or creek which can be a good source of water during drought
- Prepare the fields depending on the vegetation of the area.
- Manually clear and plow the area until it is properly cleaned.
- Corm is a good planting material since it is less bulky and will easily germinate.
- Do not mix different cultivars.
- Choose healthy and disease free planting materials to avoid disease infestation of the area.
- Plant corms at 1m x 1m planting distance.
- Mark the desired area to be planted with a bamboo stick.
- Plant the seedpieces following the square method.
- Bore a hole that could approximately accommodate the size of the seedpiece or planting material.
- Plant the seedpiece in the hole with the side or facing upward to minimize rotting and to enhance germination.
- Replant the missing hills with good and viable seedpieces.
- Get enough soil sample and send it to the nearest "Soil Testing Laboratory". The amount of fertilizer needed will depend on the inherent fertility of the soil.
- For distant farms, if stunted growth of the plant is noted, use complete fertilizer at the amount of two to three bags per hectare.
- Fertilize the abaca plant 2-4 months after planting.
- Fertilize plants using the ring method a radius of 1½ inches from the base of the plant.
- Weed the area regularly until the plants mature and are ready for harvesting as seedpieces and/or planting materials.
- Plant intercrops such as peanut, mungbean or sweetpotato at the early stage of growth to reduce weed population.
- Keep the nursery area free from any pests and diseases.
Remove or puncture the pseudostem of the mother plant 4-6 months after planting in order to regenerate eyebuds or suckers. This technique, known as "decapitation", was based on the premise that the nutrients absorbed for the growth of the motherplant will be utilized for regeneration of eyebuds and suckers.
- Harvest abaca seedpieces 12-14 months after planting.
- Uproot all suckers but leave 2-3 healthy suckers for the next cropping period.
- Chop the corms into seedpieces having 1 or 2 eyebuds in each seedpiece. They should be free from any pests and diseases to reduce disease infestation to the abaca growing areas.
- Place the seedpieces in bags and store the seedpieces in cool and shaded areas to reduce damage and dehydration.
- Label each bag with the cultivars name and the number of seedpieces accommodated.
Visayas State College of Agriculture